2017年7月30日 星期日

MADDADDAM by Margaret Atwood

“The best way of being kind to bears is not to be very close to them.”
- from MADDADDAM by Margaret Atwood
In this final volume of the internationally celebrated MaddAddam trilogy, the Waterless Flood pandemic has wiped out most of the population. Toby is part of a small band of survivors, along with the Children of Crake: the gentle, bioengineered quasi-human species who will inherit this new earth.

"Dior: The Collections, 1947-2017."

At Vogue Magazine, Laird Borrelli-Persson interviews Alexander Furyabout Christian Dior, the New Look, and the Dior legacy on the occasion of his exquisite new book, "Dior: The Collections, 1947-2017."

Fashion journalist Alexander Fury on what he learned when working on his…
VOGUE.COM

2017年7月29日 星期六

《英國工人階級狀況》;( Friedrich) Engels By David McLellan 恩格斯傳; 烏克蘭的恩格斯雕像,胡不魂歸曼徹斯特。


#英國工人階級狀況”一書是弗·恩格斯1844年9月-1845年3月在巴門寫成的。恩格斯在英國居住期間(1842年11月-1844年8月)研究了英國無產階級的生活條件,他本來打算在他計劃寫的英國社會史中分出一章來說明這個問題,但是恩格斯為了要說明無產階級在資產階級社會中的特殊作用,便決定專門寫一本書來研究英國工人階級狀況。
  本書的德文第一版在1845年在萊比錫出版,德文第二版在1892年出版。那時經作者同意的本書英譯本已出過兩版(1887年紐約版和1892年倫敦版)。恩格斯在準備出本書的新版時,並沒有做任何重大的修改。但是在1887年“美國版附錄”(這篇附錄的內容後來幾乎完全包括在1892年的英文版和德文版的序言中)中,恩格斯認為必須告訴讀者:不應當把“英國工人階級狀況”這本書當做一本成熟的馬克思主義的著作。他這樣寫道:“……在本書中到處都可以發現現代社會主義從它的祖先之一即德國古典哲學起源的痕跡。例如本書(特別是在末尾)大力強調:共產主義不純粹是工人階級的黨的學說,而且是一種理論,其最終目的就是把連同資本家在內的整個社會從現存關係的狹窄的範圍中解放出來。這個論斷在抽象的意義下是正確的,然而在實踐中卻是無益的,甚至多半是有害的。既然有產階級不但自己不感到有任何解放的需要,而且以全力反對工人階級的自我解放,那末工人階級就應當單獨地準備和進行社會革命。”接著,恩格斯就解釋,為什麼他在1845年所做的“英國將在最近發生社會革命”的預言沒有證實。他認為,1848年以後憲章運動的低潮和英國工人運動中機會主義的暫時勝利是與英國工業壟斷世界市場有直接聯繫的,並且他確信,一旦英國喪失了壟斷地位,“社會主義將重新在英國出現”。——編者註
中文馬克思主義文庫
6小時
【報導一則:恩格斯回到了曼徹斯特市!】
馬克思一生摯友和革命夥伴恩格斯,回到了英國曼徹斯特!2017年7月17日,曼徹斯特市國際節的活動高潮,為市中心特托尼威爾遜廣場(Tony Wilson Place)豎立的恩格斯雕像進行揭幕儀式。
這座雕像原本是在烏克蘭,因為後來右派政府上台而被拆除。 英國藝術家菲爾·柯林斯(Phil Collins),在烏克蘭東北部的哈爾科夫(Kharkiv)市發現了這座被遺棄的雕像,經過繁瑣的法律程序,終於成功將雕像帶離烏克蘭,安放在一架平板大卡車穿越歐洲最後回到了曼徹斯特。
恩格斯在曼市住了20年,目睹了新興資本主義生產的巨大發展,但同時也目睹資本主義的種種罪惡及剝削的一面,而寫下了名著《英國工人階級狀況》。
《英國工人階級狀況》全書連結:
https://www.marxists.org/chinese/engels/1844-1845/index.htm
照片來源:美國《雅各賓雜誌》(Jacobin magazine)臉書







David McLellan 1977恩格斯傳 北京:中國人民大學,2017


Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist, and businessman. He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx. Wikipedia
BornNovember 28, 1820, Barmen, Germany
DiedAugust 5, 1895, London, United Kingdom

The state is nothing but an instrument of opression of one class by another - no less so in a democratic republic than in a monarchy.
All history has been a history of class struggles between dominated classes at various stages of social development.
An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory.


烏克蘭的恩格斯雕像,胡不魂歸曼徹斯特。
https://www.ft.com/content/205105fc-67c3-11e7-9a66-93fb352ba1fe

Back on his pedestal: the return of Friedrich Engels A socialist resurgence has revived the radicalism of the German Marxist thinker. Now the artist Phil Collins is bringing his statue back to the British city he called home Share on Twitter (opens new window) Share on Facebook (opens new window) Share on LinkedIn (opens new window) 6 Save 15 HOURS AGO by: John Lloyd The artist Phil Collins wanted to bring Friedrich Engels back to Manchester where, in the mid-19th century, he had lived for two decades. The German Marxist thinker established the first great industrial city in the annals of communist history with his excoriating 1845 polemic The Condition of the Working Class in England. But in the 171 years since his death, Manchester forgot about him. Collins told me his search for Engels was a “dream”. And it came true: he found him lying face down in the earth, long neglected, behind a creamery in Mala Pereshchepina, a few hours from the north-eastern Ukrainian city of Kharkiv. He was a man of two halves, sawn through at the waist, mouldy, unlovely, cast in concrete. His sorry condition told a wider story. After the Soviet Union emerged from the terror-driven idealism of the Stalinist era, party leader Leonid Brezhnev sought to hold up the USSR as a “developed” socialist state. Other gods were put into place: Lenin statuary was displayed everywhere, as were busts of Karl Marx and, less frequently, his friend and funder Engels. All gazed purposefully into the future. This one had been erected in 1970 and stood stonily in the village for several decades, a gentleman of the Victorian era in frock coat and long beard. Phil Collins in Zaporizhia, Ukraine with a statue of Vladimir Lenin that he was ultimately unable to bring back to the UK © Nikiforov Yevgen The collapse of Soviet communism two decades later saw many come off their pedestals — a culling that was more or less total in the satellite states. Some remained in the Russified areas of eastern Ukraine; but in 2015, as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine continued, an increasingly anti-Russian government decreed that Soviet symbols must be removed, pro-Soviet speech banned and even the singing of Soviet-era songs forbidden. So Collins, previously nominated for the Turner Prize for a video about people whose lives had been ruined by appearing on reality TV, came upon the object of his search when it was at a literal low point in its concrete existence. He and two Russian-speaking aides, Anya Harrison and Olga Borissova, had begun their search in August last year, sensibly enough, in the city of Engels, on the Volga. There they found a statue, also concrete, still standing amid the ruin of the meatpacking plant that had commissioned it. But the local authority, at first helpful, later proved fearful of giving the icon to foreigners at a time of east-west tension. It referred the decision to a court: a decision is still pending. With time running against them, the searchers moved on to the Belarusian city of Vitebsk, where they found a triptych statue — an Asian woman, an African man, with a white young man between them, embracing both, expressing the theme of brotherhood (and less overtly, Soviet leadership). Collins was tempted but it, too, was denied a visa. Collins with a statue of Engels that did not come back to the UK © Nikiforov Yevgen Finally they came to Mala Pereshchepina, where the local authorities were only too glad to get rid of what was by now a legally toxic artefact. In mid-May this year, the two-tonne, near-four-metre-high cement behemoth was loaded on to a flatbed truck to be trundled across Europe, to the city of Engels’ epiphany. This Sunday evening, when it is unveiled outside Home, a big modern arts building in Manchester largely funded by the city council, Collins’ quest will finally be at an end. The artist’s timing is impeccable. June’s UK general election saw a surge of support for the Labour party led by the far-left Jeremy Corbyn. Like Bernie Sanders in last year’s US Democratic primaries, this ageing socialist appealed first of all to the young. Marxism, which had been read the last rites by many, has found new life, reuniting its long-lonely intellectuals and academic advocates with the masses. The French economist Thomas Piketty’s 2013 book Capital in the Twenty-First Century, a self-conscious echo of Marx, was a huge seller. Commentators on the left are making connections between what Engels wrote and contemporary society. Writing in the Guardian after the fire at the Grenfell Tower block of flats in London, Aditya Chakrabortty explicitly linked the tragedy with The Condition of the Working Class, stating Britain “remains a country that murders its poor”. In such narratives, modern despair and marginalisation are laid at the feet of capitalism. The brutality of regimes working under Marxist rules — dramatised this week by the death of China’s most prominent dissident Liu Xiaobo, a few days after his release from long imprisonment — fades to the background. Collins believes that Engels is a writer “with whom we can engage today, with the questions he raises. He isn’t to be confined to his time and forgotten.” Engels’ writing shocked the Victorians. In The Condition of the Working Class he stressed that Britain’s wealth and imperial power (which impressed him), was built on the degradation and endless labour of hundreds of thousands of men, women and children, living in “half or wholly ruined buildings . . . rarely a wooden or stone floor to be seen in the houses, almost uniformly broken, ill-fitting windows and doors, and a state of filth!” Karl Marx, whom Engels had known slightly before he left Germany, was said to have been bewitched by the book. A villager in Mala Pereshchepina, Ukraine, with the statue of Engels that eventually came to Manchester © Shady Lane Productions The brutal world Engels described became a backdrop to some of the era’s best-known literature. The future prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli, published Sybil in 1845; Charles Dickens brought out Hard Times in 1854 and Mrs Gaskell North and South in 1855. All expressed horror at the human cost of industrialism, though with much more sentimentality and much less detail. Even now, when — for all the excesses of capitalism — the stark exploitation Engels evoked has disappeared in the western world, The Condition of the Working Class is an uncomfortable read. The homelessness of the rising generation; the precariousness of freelance work; the feared mass unemployment once artificial replaces human intelligence; the long, spiky tail of the banking collapse of 2008; the end of the postwar expectation that children will ascend further and richer than their parents — these are plausibly presented by the left as a 21st-century equivalent of the Condition of the Working, and even Middle Class of England, and the rest of the capitalist world. Looking out from Home’s café on to the space where Engels will finally rest — and remain — Sarah Perks, the centre’s artistic director for visual arts, tells me that discussion points will be created around the statue’s base to encourage viewers to become participants: “We want to try to understand what the equivalent hardships to those described by Engels would be for today’s working class.” *** Collins intersects with Engels in two ways. Born in the Cheshire port of Runcorn, he works mainly in Manchester. He also has a home in the North Rhine-Westphalia city of Wuppertal, where Engels was born to a pious and wealthy manufacturing family, mainly in the dyestuffs trade (he was already a fledgling socialist when sent by his despairing father to Manchester to work at one of his part-owned subsidiaries in the city). Moving the statue © Shady Lane Productions More than most contemporary artists on the left, Collins shows a strong sympathy for the communist era: one of his films, Marxism Today, is composed of tender interviews with former teachers of Marxism-Leninism in East Germany who were rendered unemployable by its collapse. “When the wall fell, there was also a collapse of something which had been solidarity, co-operative working: individualism flourished,” he says. First and foremost, though, he is engaged in an ironic, post-modernist project. He has taken an icon rejected by a recently socialist state as a sign of imperialist oppression to give it an honoured place in Manchester, the birthplace of industrial capitalism and of free trade. He sees Manchester as a city imbued with a kind of generic leftism: “There’s a Mancunian spirit of radicalism, an interest in politics and what it can do for people if properly managed.” He is most interested in “those who have been occluded from society or history” as Engels was in Manchester, where there is no statue to commemorate him. He thought it necessary to place him back in the city which he had described so graphically, to provide a contrast to the statues of local figures, some of whom — like Richard Cobden and John Bright, the proponents of free trade — were major national figures. On the long trip back from Ukraine to Manchester, he found that the huge, grubby, sundered statue “became a revelation: I felt more connected with him, he became suddenly real. It’s very alive — its physiognomy changed, depending on how it was placed, on the ground, or on the truck, or in the old train depot (its temporary home in Manchester).” The trip, which Collins filmed, featured a number of organised setpieces. In Kharkiv, a reception was arranged. “There were schoolchildren, and a teacher gave a lesson about Marx and Engels, Manchester and its importance, the Soviet Union, and the process of de-communisation. Then a girls’ choir, all in white, stood up on the truck and sang a Soviet-era song called ‘The Jolly Wind’ (presumably in defiance of the law), as they waved goodbye.” A choir of schoolchildren in Kharkiv, where a reception was arranged for the statue © Shady Lane Productions At Rosa Luxemburg Platz in Berlin (named after the communist activist murdered in the city in 1919) actors and others — many from the Volksbühne, or People’s Theatre — put on a show. There were speeches by academics belonging to the “accelerationist” school — a protean thought system with left and right branches, whose basis is the desire to speed up technological change to accelerate social transformation. The trip and the project display the artist’s ability to draw in myriad influences and strands, from kitsch through social realism and Soviet sentimentality for the loss of an authoritarianism they had experienced as security. Collins believes that, in the collapse of communism, “Something had been lost. The usual prism through which we saw, say, the East German society, was so strong that we didn’t see the ordinary; it frustrated our ability to see the day-to-day life.” He believes his Engels project “points to the fact we can have different kinds of statues here. It’s a found object, not something specially made. It’s transformative. It’s one kind of history coming back into the forge that created it.” *** The indifference of Manchester to Engels was noted by the former Labour MP Tristram Hunt in his fine biography, The Frock-Coated Communist. He found an Engels House on a council estate, where the residents complain of damp. In 2014, when the university in neighbouring Salford had the Engine Arts Theatre Company build a five-metre-high fibreglass Engels bust in which his vast beard was a climbing frame, one reviewer described it “as having all the intelligence and subtlety of making a see-saw shaped like Marx’s bum boils”. Things are changing, according to Jonathan Schofield, who writes about the city and conducts tours. Schofield thinks Manchester, along with other Midlands and northern cities, is shaking off its subaltern deference to London. “The provincial cities in the 19th century were more important than London. Now you’re finding a reawakening of civic pride: coming into their own again,” he says. He does a Marx and Engels tour that takes in Chetham’s Library, the oldest free library in the UK, opened in the mid-17th century through the bequest of Humphrey Chetham, a local merchant. “It’s the only building left where Engels definitely was. He worked with Marx at a table, still there, with the books they both used. When I take Chinese visitors to see it, some of them cry.” Vinnie Gavin (right) and his son Scott Gavin of 'Stone Central' work on restoring the statue of Friedrich Engels in Manchester in July © Greg Funnell For all the mass murders committed in their name, Marx and Engels continue to loom large today, not just in the consciousness of lachrymose visitors from China — where they remain on their pedestals. Their ideas are being revived beyond the lecture room. They represent a way not taken, a revolution betrayed. And on Sunday evening, Manchester’s first communist will be unveiled on a capitalist pedestal at last. John Lloyd is an FT contributing editor Photographs: Greg Funnell; Yevgen Nikiforov


2017年7月28日 星期五

《伏爾泰》《哲學辭典 》《哲學書簡》Lettres Philosophiques/Letters Concerning the English Nation

“Writing is the painting of the voice; the closer the resemblance, the better it is”
-- Voltaire



龍應台專文:救生艇裏放聲唱歌──給香港的九十後
......生於一六九四年的伏爾泰,其實就是一個三百年前的「九十後」。看見了獨裁體制的不公不義,看穿了宗教組織的偽善和獨斷,這個聰慧機敏的九十後用筆的力量,在巴黎、倫敦、日內瓦的思想街頭馳騁;三百年後的九十後們,用各種方法在試探權力的看不見的那條線,在紐約、伊斯坦堡、開羅、曼谷、臺北、香港的街頭和廣場奔走。

三百年,世界變了很多,但是根本性的問題,九十後青年伏爾泰所思索追究的問題,並未改變;譬如說,權力的拳頭到哪裏必須停止?自由的極限可以擴張到多大,由誰來界定?譬如說,追求真理很重要,容忍也很重要,但是當追求真理必須殘酷而與容忍的精神相違背時,你站到哪一邊去?

伏爾泰說過的一句話,讓後來的人 ── 幾乎是全世界的人,一再地傳頌、引用:「我不同意你的看法,但是我誓死維護你說出看法的權利。」雖然歷史翻案者說,他的逐字原文並非如此,但是這句話確實代表了他一輩子的信仰和堅持。

我注意到的是,他還說了很多別的話,意義之深刻,令我在三百年後看著今日局勢的忽冷忽熱、權力的忽東忽西、價值的忽上忽下,仍舊驚詫不已。

他說,歷史?歷史就是大家都共同接受、贊同的謊言。

他說,真正糟糕的其實不是貧富不均而是依賴的形成。

他說,我們要熱愛真理,但是也必須懂得原諒犯錯……

.....以及迎向陽光、迎向風雨的信心。我用三百年前的九十後伏爾泰的一句話送給今天香港的九十後:

Life is a shipwreck but we must remember to sing in the lifeboats.



Voltaire was most known for his championing of justice and tolerance and his mockery of the cruelty and obscurantism of the civil and ecclesiastical establishments from the late 1750s onwards. This was the source of both his persecution and his immense international prestige during his lifetime.
"Let us read, and let us dance—two amusements that will never do any harm to the world." - 




《伏爾泰》《哲學辭典 》

2010.10 伏爾泰 (Voltaire, 1694-1775, 傾一生之力著作的法國哲人關於不斷坦承說法可以參考R. Pomeau伏爾泰(上海人民出版社, 2010) 中的摘要《哲學辭典 人類思想 (心靈的侷限》 (174-75) 和《無知的哲學家》頁183-84.
《哲學辭典 》北京:商務1995 pp.260-61



我要是信徒,不入天主教,便入貴格會。

哲學書簡


  • 作者:伏爾泰/著出版社:生活人文出版日期:2005年


法國評論家朗松(Gustave Lanson)描述本書為:「投向舊制度的第一顆炸彈。」
伏爾泰是法國人,而他曾居住在英國一段時間。這段期間,他拜會過著名的思想家、文學家,學會了英文、讀了洛克、培根、牛頓、莎士比亞等人的著作,看到英國 工商業的發達、宗教的寬容和政治上的開明。因此,他把這段期間的英國見聞,大部分用英文寫下,以書信體裁發表了著名的《哲學書簡》,於1733年首度在英 國倫敦出版,系統性地介紹、評論英國的政治、社會、宗教、文藝發展狀況。
  1734年,《哲學書簡》的法文版在法國出版,法國政府大為震怒,出版商遭逮捕、書籍全部遭到焚燬,伏爾泰再度流亡,該書則改在荷蘭出版,可見此書在當時引發的震撼。
  這場風暴可說是啟蒙運動的序幕,法國評論家朗松(Gustave Lanson)描述本書為:「投向舊制度的第一顆炸彈。」
  伏爾泰可以說是影響法國啟蒙運動最深且最重要的一個思想家。而《哲學書簡》則是開啟法國啟蒙運動的第一部重要論述,想認識啟蒙運動者,不可不讀!
作者簡介
伏爾泰(1694-1778)
  原名馮索瓦‧馬西‧阿虎埃(Fran�ois Marie Arouet),是法國啟蒙運動的重要思想家,也是多才多藝的多產作家,作品橫跨哲學、文學、歷史、政治、自然科學等。
   在哲學方面,他的重要著作除了本書《哲學書簡》以外,還包括《哲學辭典》、《論信仰自由》等;在文學方面,伏爾泰的著作更豐,包括小說、喜劇、悲劇、諷 刺詩等,皆廣受歡迎,名著包括《戇第德》、《中國孤兒》、《伊底帕斯》、《穆罕默德》等;在歷史方面,則有《路易十四時代》、《查理十二世史》、《風俗 論》等重要著作。



Lettres Philosophiques/Letters Concerning the English Nation《哲學通信》



《哲學通信》這本書,我80年代末才知道,所以1977年留學英國前,遍讀中文的"英國論"相關著作,卻沒讀過它,實在遺憾。今天留英的人數,可能是70年代的數十倍,希望他們能有機會讀讀它。

Letters on the English
Lettres anglaises voltaire.jpg
Title page from 1734 edition of Letters on the English
AuthorVoltaire
Original titleLettres philosophiques
CountryFrance
LanguageFrench
SubjectPhilosophy
GenreCollection of essays
PublisherBasile
Publication date
1734
Published in English
1778
Lettres philosophiques (or Letters Concerning the English Nation) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of the Kingdom of Great Britain). It was published first in English in 1733 and then in French the following year, where it was seen as an attack on the French system of government and was rapidly suppressed. Most modern English-language versions are based on a translation of the French text rather than Voltaire's English one.
In some ways, the book can be compared with Democracy in America by Alexis De Tocqueville, in how it flatteringly explains a nation to itself from the perspective of an outsider, as Voltaire's depictions of aspects of English culture, society and government are often given favourable treatment in comparison to their French equivalents.

Summary

Lettres anglaises consists of twenty-four letters:
  • Letter I: On The Quakers
  • Letter II: On The Quakers
  • Letter III: On The Quakers
  • Letter IV: On The Quakers
  • Letter V: On The Church of England
  • Letter VI: On The Presbyterians
  • Letter VII: On The Socinians, or Arians, or Antitrinitarians
  • Letter VIII: On The Parliament
  • Letter IX: On The Government
  • Letter X: On Trade
  • Letter XI: On Inoculation
  • Letter XII: On The Lord Bacon
  • Letter XIII: On Mr. Locke
  • Letter XIV: On Descartes and Sir Isaac Newton
  • Letter XV: On Attraction
  • Letter XVI: On Sir Isaac Newton's Optics
  • Letter XVII: On Infinites in Geometry, and Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology
  • Letter XVIII: On Tragedy
  • Letter XIX: On Comedy
  • Letter XX: On Such of The Nobility as Cultivate The Belles Lettres
  • Letter XXI: On The Earl of Rochester and Mr. Waller
  • Letter XXII: On Mr. Pope and Some Other Famous Poets
  • Letter XXIII: On The Regard That Ought to Be Shown to Men of Letters
  • Letter XXIV: On The Royal Society and Other Academies

Religion

Voltaire first addresses religion in Letters 1–7. He specifically talks about Quakers (1–4), Anglicans (5), Presbyterians (6), and Socinians (7).
In the Letters 1-4, Voltaire describes the Quakers, their customs, their beliefs, and their history. He appreciates the simplicity of their rituals. In particular, he praises their lack of baptism ("we are not of opinion that the sprinkling water on a child's head makes him a Christian"), the lack of communion ("'How! no communion?' said I. 'Only that spiritual one,' replied he, 'of hearts'"), and the lack of priests ("'You have, then, no priests?' said I to him. 'No, no, friend,' replies the Quaker, 'to our great happiness'"), but still expresses concern regarding the manipulative nature of organized religion.
Letter 5 is devoted to the Anglican religion, which Voltaire compares favourably to Catholicism("With regard to the morals of the English clergy, they are more regular than those of France"), but he criticizes the ways in which it has stayed true to the Catholic rituals, in particular ("The English clergy have retained a great number of the Romish ceremonies, and especially that of receiving, with a most scrupulous attention, their tithes. They also have the pious ambition to aim at superiority").
In Letter 6, Voltaire attacks the Presbyterians, whom he sees as intolerant ("[The Presbyterian] affects a serious gait, puts on a sour look, wears a vastly broad-brimmed hat and a long cloak over a very short coat, preaches through the nose, and gives the name of the whore of Babylon to all churches where the ministers are so fortunate as to enjoy an annual revenue of five or six thousand pounds, and where the people are weak enough to suffer this, and to give them the titles of my lord, your lordship, or your eminence") and overly strict ("No operas, plays, or concerts are allowed in London on Sundays, and even cards are so expressly forbidden that none but persons of quality, and those we call the genteel, play on that day; the rest of the nation go either to church, to the tavern, or to see their mistresses").
Finally, in the Letter 7, he talks about the "Socinians," whose belief system is somewhat related to Voltaire's own deist viewpoint. Voltaire argues that while this sect includes some of the day's most important thinkers (including Newton and Locke), this is not enough to persuade the common man that it is logical. According to Voltaire, men prefer to follow the teachings of "wretched authors" such as Martin LutherJohn Calvin, or Huldrych Zwingli.

Politics

In Letters 8 and 9, Voltaire discusses the English political system.
Letter 8 talks about the British parliament, which he compares to both Rome and France. In terms of Rome, Voltaire criticizes the fact that Britain has entered wars on account of religion (whereas Rome did not), but he praises Britain for serving liberty rather than tyranny (as in Rome). In terms of France, Voltaire responds to French criticism concerning the regicide of Charles I by highlighting the British judicial process as opposed to the outright murders of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII or Henry III of France, or the multiple attempts on the life of Henry IV of France.
In Letter 9, Voltaire gives a brief history of the Magna Carta, talks about the equal dispensing of justice, and the levying of taxes.

Trade and commerce

In Letter 10, Voltaire praises the English trade system, its benefits, and what it brings to the English (from 1707, British) nation. According to Voltaire, trade greatly contributed to the liberty of the English people, and this liberty in turn contributed to the expansion of commerce. It is trade as well that gave England its naval riches and power. In addition, Voltaire takes the opportunity to satirize the  German and French nobles who ignore this type of enterprise. For Voltaire, nobles are less important than the businessman who "contributes to the felicity of the world."

Medicine

In Letter 11, Voltaire argues in favour for the English practice of inoculation, which was widely mistrusted and condemned in continental Europe. This letter is probably in response to a 1723 small pox epidemic in Paris that killed 20,000 people.

Famous Britons

Letter 12 speaks of Francis Bacon, author of Novum Organum and father of experimental philosophy.
Letter 13 is about John Locke and his theories on the immortality of the soul.
Letter 14 compares British philosopher Isaac Newton to French philosopher René Descartes. Upon his death in 1727, Newton was compared to Descartes in a eulogy performed by French philosopher Fontenelle. While the British did not appreciate this comparison, Voltaire argues that Descartes, too, was a great philosopher and mathematician.
Letter 15 focuses on Newton's work with the laws of attraction. Letter 16 talks about Newton's work with optics. Letter 17 discusses Newton's work with geometry and his theories on the end of the world.

Art

In Letter 18, Voltaire talks about British tragedy, specifically in the hands of William Shakespeare. Voltaire presents his readers with the famous "To be, or not to be" soliloquy in Hamlet along with a translation into French rhyming verse. He also cites a passage from John Dryden and gives a translation.
In Letter 19, Voltaire addresses British comedy, citing William WycherleyJohn Vanbrugh, and William Congreve.
Letter 20 speaks briefly of the belles lettres of the nobility, including the Earl of Rochester and Edmund Waller.
Letter 21 references the poetry of Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope.
In Letter 23, Voltaire argues that the British honour their Men of Letters far better than the French in terms of money and veneration.
The last letter, letter 24, discusses the Royal Society of London, which he compares unfavourably to the Académie Française.

Letter XXV

Philosophy

In the letter 25, which was not included with the original twenty-four, Voltaire criticizes certain ideas of Blaise Pascal by taking citations from his Pensées and giving his own opinion on the same subject. The most important difference between the two philosophers is in their conception of man. Pascal insists on the miserable aspect of man who must fill the emptiness of his life with amusements, while Voltaire accepts the optimistic Enlightenment view.

External links




中國有翻譯本; 哲學通信,有幾種版本.....


伏爾泰的哲學和政治思想代表作。
《哲學通信》
Lettres Philosophiques

   伏 爾泰的哲學和政治思想代表作。伏爾泰於1726~1729年被迫流亡英國。《哲學通信》是他在英國的觀感和心得的總結,因此又稱《英國通信》,1733年 首先在英國出版英文版,法文版於1734年問世。伏爾泰在《哲學通信》中結合向法國讀者介紹F.培根、洛克和牛頓的思想,表述了自己的哲學思想。像洛克一 樣,他的哲學思想前提是承認物質世界的客觀性。書中重點論述認識論問題,認為人的一切觀念都來自感官對外界事物的感覺,感覺是感官接受外物刺激引起的。它 強調感覺是觀念的唯一來源,人的頭腦唯一具有的能力是對感覺得來的觀念進行組合和整理。書中力圖克服洛克關於「反省觀念」的不徹底性,把唯物主義的感覺論 貫徹到底。從此出發,書中尖銳地批判了R.笛卡爾的天賦觀念論,特彆強調這種形而上學體系的危害性,認為天賦觀念論不僅阻礙人類知識的增長,而且為神學提 供根據,代替早已破產的經 院哲學而為靈魂不滅等宗教信條作哲學辯護。該書堅持與宗教唯心論鬥爭,認為宗教和教會統治是人類理性的主要敵人。阻礙文明進步,是最大的社會禍害。他受同 時代機械論的影響,缺乏對物質與運動統一性的認識。書中用牛頓力學的原理解釋物質和運動,把物質看作消極被動的因素,認為如果沒有外力的推動,物質不會自 己運動。因此承認宇宙設計師和第一推動者神的存在,表現出自然神論的思想。

   

《哲學通信》
《哲學通信》中譯本封面

Poet Carl Sandburg; Lincoln:A Life;《林肯新傳》《林肯傳》Abraham Lincoln " The Shoemaker's Son "


Carl Sandburg was an American poet, writer, and editor who won three Pulitzer Prizes: two for his poetry and one for his biography of Abraham Lincoln. Wikipedia
EducationLombard College (1898–1902)

Poetry is an echo, asking a shadow to dance.
Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have, and only you can determine how it will be spent. Be careful lest you let other people spend it for you.
I'm an idealist. I don't know where I'm going, but I'm on my way.



“Beware of advice—even this.”
—Poet Carl Sandburg




On this day in 1865, John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, fatally shoots President Abraham Lincoln at a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. The attack came only five days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his massive army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
"The assassination of Abraham Lincoln. It was a new crime, a pure act of malice. No purpose of the rebellion was to be served by it. It was the simple gratification of a hell-black spirit of revenge."
-- Frederick Douglass (1876)
As a defender of national unity, a leader in war, and the emancipator of slaves, Abraham Lincoln lays ample claim to being the greatest of our presidents. But the story of his rise to greatness is as complex as it is compelling. In this superb, prize-winning biography, acclaimed historian Richard Carwardine examines Lincoln’s dramatic political journey, from his early years in the Illinois legislature to his nation-shaping years in the White House. Here, Carwardine combines a new perspective with a compelling narrative to deliver a fresh look at one of the pillars of American politics. He probes the sources of Lincoln’s moral and political philosophy and uses his groundbreaking research to cut through the myth and expose the man behind it. READ an excerpt here: http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/…/lincoln-by-richard-car…/


Happy Presidents Day. The Cornell Library's copy of the 13th Amendment - signed by Abraham Lincoln - is on display now along with a number of other Lincoln artifacts.

今日世界出版社以前連Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and The War Years Carl Sandburg (Author)等書都翻譯








Abraham Lincoln " The Shoemaker's Son "

Abraham Lincoln was the son of a shoemaker and he became the president of America. Naturally all the aristocrats were tremendously disturbed, annoyed, irritated.


On the first day, when he was going to give his inaugural address to the Senate, just as he was going to stand up, one ugly aristocrat stood up and he said "Mr. Lincoln although by some accident you have become the president of country, don't forget that you used to come with your father to my house to prepare shoes for our family. And there are many senators who are wearing the shoes made by your father"

He was thinking he can humiliate him.

Abraham Lincoln said something which should be remembered by everyone. He said
"I am very grateful to you for reminding me of my father just before I give my address to the Senate. My father was so beautiful, and such a creative artist-there was no other man who could make such beautiful shoes. I know perfectly well that whatever I do, I will never be such a great president as he was a great creator. I can not surpass him.

But by the ways, I want to remind all you aristocrats that if the shoes made by my father are pinching you, I have also learned the art with him. I am not great shoemaker, but at least I can correct your shoes. You just inform me, I will come to your house".


There was a great silence in the Senate, senator understood that it was impossible to humiliate this person. Only small people, suffering from inferiority, can be humiliated; the greatest of human beings are beyond humiliations.
在林肯當選總統時,整個參議院的議員都感到尷尬,因為林肯的父親是個鞋匠。
當時美國的參議員大部分出身 望族,自認為是上流、優越的人,從未料到要面對總統是一個卑微的鞋匠的兒子。
於是,林肯一次在參議院演說 之前,就有參議員計劃要羞辱他。
在林肯站在演講台的時候,有一位態度傲慢的參議員站起來說:「 林肯 先生,在你開始演講之前,我希望你記住,你是一個鞋匠的兒子。」!所有議員都大笑了起來,為自己雖然不能打敗林肯而能羞辱他開懷不已。
林肯等到大家的笑聲歇止,坦 然地說:「我非常感激你使我想起我的父親,他已經過世了,我一定會永遠記住你的忠告,
我永遠是鞋匠的兒子,我知道我做總統永遠無法像我父親做鞋匠做得那麼好。」
參議院陷入一片靜默,林肯轉頭對那個傲慢的參議員說:「就我所知,我父親以前也為你的家人做鞋子,如果你的鞋不合腳,我可以幫你改正它,雖然我不是偉大的鞋匠,但是我從小就跟隨父親學到了做鞋子的藝術。」
然後他對所有的參議員說: 「對參議院裡的任何人都一樣,如果你們穿的那雙鞋是我父親做的,而它們需要修理或改善,我一定盡可能幫忙,但是有一件事是可以確定的,我無法像他那麼偉大,他的手藝是無人能比。」
說到這裡,林肯流下了眼淚,所有的嘲笑聲全部化為掌聲。
林肯沒有成為偉大的鞋匠,但成為偉大的總統,他最偉大的品質,正是他永遠不忘記自己是鞋匠的兒子,並引以為榮。
尊嚴是人類靈魂中不可蹧蹋的東西,只有在你能夠坦率、真誠地面對自己的時候,你才會真正尊重你自己,並且贏得別人的尊重。那些懂得尊重自己的人,才會去尊重別人。

《林肯新傳》 作者:(美)湯馬士(Benjamin Thomas)著;何祖紹譯出版社:今日世界出版社 出版時間:1963 我們今天可對照原著 才知道它沒附地圖 maps 也少譯了一些 (如 illustrations /原書 Foreword 2008 當然 我們知道此書禁得起時代的考驗 )

Abraham Lincoln: A Biography - Google 圖書結果

Benjamin P. Thomas, Michael Burlingame - 2008 - Biography & Autobiography - 576 頁
The volume's clarity of style makes it accessible to beginners, but it is complex and nuanced enough to interest longtime Lincoln scholars.



胡適應該沒機會讀這本書
關心國是者 請用 a common country 查
Abraham Lincoln: A Biography - Google 圖書結果
Benjamin P. Thomas, Michael Burlingame - 2008 - Biography & Autobiography - 576 頁

可得出美國內戰之後求統一 不過它追求的是彼此的目的的一致 unify a country in common purpose

胡適日記全集 - Google 圖書結果

胡適, 曹伯言, 胡適 - 2004 - Biography & Autobiography
留學日記卷十三民國五年( 1916 )四月十八日至七月廿一日一、試譯林肯演說中的半句(四月十八日)趙宣仲(元任)寄書問林肯(蓋梯司堡( Gettysburg )演說)中之"。 ...





Gettysburg Address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



《林肯傳》 [美]詹姆斯·麥克弗森著
田雷譯
中國政法大學出版社


馮象
.......回到北京,難得的風和日麗。打開信箱,竟又見證了田君的勤勉。原來,他把美國內戰史權威、普林斯頓歷史系教授麥克弗森的《林肯傳》譯出,做一本別出心裁的小書,託人送來了。
我說別出心裁,有兩層意思。
一是讚賞此書的內容編排。林肯研究在美國歷來是“熱門”,著作汗牛充棟。譯者挑出麥氏的傳記,是有眼光的。這小冊子省卻了資料堆砌,著力普及歷史知識,文字通俗易懂,作者夾敘夾議,不乏生動的人物性格細節。拿來給中國讀者做入門的嚮導,再合適沒有了。不過,移譯麥氏只是田君貢獻的一半。配合傳記,他不光撰文作一譯序,闡明林肯“再造”憲法、終結“州權主義”的歷史意義,還選譯了林肯六篇著名的演講,包括《葛底斯堡演說》,各具導讀,為本書下編。末尾,則備一份扼要的“林肯書目”並“林肯生平大事記”,便利讀者檢索參閱。
第二,《林肯傳》裝幀不俗:淡墨護封,書名加總統頭像燙藍;翻開,歷史照片插圖之外,附一摺頁,與護封一色,印著葛堡演說傳世手稿的唯一簽名本,the Bliss copy。眾所周知,林肯是演講天才。少時在小鴿溪農場的木屋裡,如飢似渴讀兩部書《聖經》和《天路歷程》,練就了他獨具一格的“詩性文體” (頁5),又樸實又高貴、堅韌。而林肯演講最著名也是最短的一篇,即葛堡演說。
這演說全文僅272單詞,從前英語課本必收,要求學生背誦。或許正因為膾炙人口,漢譯如何,一直沒怎麼留意。如今簽名本摺頁在手,便上網查詢,見有四五種譯本;對照原文,各有千秋,但一些關鍵語彙跟風格的把握仍不甚貼切。究其原因,大約是譯者不諳西文修辭,未解演說對英文欽定本《聖經》的借用發揮。加之宗教傳統不同,觀念相殊,就容易遮蔽了葛堡公墓落成典禮上,林肯以高超的修辭與政治智慧,使之獲“新生”而堪比聖書“垂範萬世”,那一場“政治宗教” (political religion)的憲法獻祭(演講一,頁107, 112)
這麼講,以林肯“串解”林肯,當然只是一家之言——兼向科先生我的拉比致敬。說到底,翻譯經典屬於“再創作”、經驗活(見《信與忘》,頁2, 107),抽像地討論,不給實例,於讀者無大助益。既然如此,我想,何不“下水玩一把”,試試新解是否可能?以下便是簽名本的拙譯,逐句註釋了,供諸君參考、方家指正。

葛底斯堡演說
(1863.11.19)
八十又七年之前,我們的先輩在此大陸接生了一個新國,她孕育於自由,奉獻於人受造而平等之公理。
如今,我們已捲入一場偉大的內戰,以考驗這國家,或任一如此孕育並奉獻的國家,能否常存。我們來到這裡,在一處偉大的戰場集會,是要把戰場的一角獻給長眠於此的將士;他們捐出自己的生命,乃是要國家永生。而我們此舉,是完全合宜而正當的。
然而,在更崇高的意義上,這片土地是我們無法奉獻——無法祝聖而使之歸聖的。那浴血於此的勇士,那生還的和犧牲了的,已經將​​它祝聖了——遠非我們的微力所能增損。此刻我們說的,這世界未必會留意、銘記;但他們在此做的,卻永遠不會被遺忘。毋寧說,奉獻於此的,是我們生者,以繼續那未竟的事業,他們一路奮戰、光榮推進的事業。毋寧說,在此奉獻於那留存我們面前的大任務的,是我們——
讓我們多多領受這些犧牲者的榮耀,忠於他們為之捐軀盡忠的偉業——
讓我們在此莊嚴保證,戰士的血絕不會白流——
讓這國家,上帝保佑,獲自由之新生——
讓這民有、民治、民享之政權,在大地上,永不消亡。


►  注釋

  • 八十又七年,four score and seven years,化自欽定本(詩90:10),延緩節奏,適於佈道、演講。
  • 接生,brought forth,統攝全文的意象,呼應下句“孕育”、結尾“新生”“消亡”。
  • 新國,new nation,比作奉獻於上帝而承“永約”的以色列聖潔之邦(創12:2, 17:7,出19:6,賽61:8-9)林肯刻意不提北軍代表的聯邦(Union),標舉國家/民族,是著眼於戰後的民族和解,以彌合“分裂之家” (可3:25,太12:25;參《林肯傳》,頁28)
  • 奉獻,dedicate,原文重複六次,經書熟語(民6:12,利27:17-18,申20:5)舊譯奉行(原則),不妥。
  • 公理,proposition,主張、提議,此處特指《獨立宣言》引以為據的“不證自明的真理” (self-evident truths)
  • 受造而平等,created equal,舊譯生而平等,誤。語出《獨立宣言》,回放《創世記》一章:所以上帝造人,取的是他自己的形象;男人女人,都依照/他的模樣(創1:27)據此,男女一同受造,形象取自天父;人既是神的鏡像,自然不應分尊卑貧富。可是聖法懸於奧秘,緊接著,伊甸園故事顛覆了“平等之公理”。第二章,耶和華“取地上的塵土”摶了亞當。女人雖說是亞當“般配的幫手”,卻是他的一根肋骨所造(創2:22)而且不幸,偷吃禁果後,上帝詛咒了夏娃,命她“依戀丈夫,要丈夫做[她]的主人” (創3:16)這是聖言啟示,男尊女卑的成因。奴隸制的出現,則要等到洪水滅了惡人,救主同完人挪亞及逃生的眾靈立約之後。那一天,完人醉酒,得知幼子瞥見父親的“裸相”,大怒,指聖名詛咒方舟的孩兒:迦南該死!將來給哥哥們當/奴隸的奴隸(創9:25)可見,“受造而平等”並無“生而平等”的階級革命的含義(對比法國《人權宣言》[1789]第一條:Les hommes naisssent…égaux en droits,人生來權利平等),僅指人未食禁果,或者末日受審,在造物主面前的平等。解放黑奴,如林肯 ​​多次解釋,本是為贏得戰爭而“必需”的一項軍事措施,目的是打擊南方的經濟、削弱其兵源(《林肯傳》,頁63-64)事實上,戰後美國南方的種族歧視、壓迫和私刑絲毫沒有消退。
  • 捲入,engaged,意謂“新國”是被迫應戰,經受“烈火的考驗” (演講四,頁158)
  • [將士],舊譯烈士,不妥。因公墓安葬兩軍的亡靈,所謂“捐出生命”的“勇士”,是包括失敗者在內的。後者抵抗的不是別的,正是林肯誓死捍衛、不許分裂的“國家”;而南方邦聯(Confederacy)的旗幟,如作家門肯(HL Mencken, 1880~1956)指出,是各州人民自決、自治的自由。當日,公墓落成典禮的主題演講嘉賓並非合眾國總統,而是哈佛校長艾弗列(President Edward Everett, 1794~1865)艾校長滔滔汨汨,奏響華章,一派拉丁化的靚麗大詞。他稱陣亡者為“英烈” (martyr-heroes),驕傲地站在“義師”一邊。輪到林肯,他只言“死者” (the dead),將雙方的犧牲一同紀念,一顯政治家清醒的頭腦於聖者的謙卑與寬仁之中。且不說修辭高下,僅此一點,總統的兩分鐘致詞(address)就勝過了校長的兩小時演講(oration),一如“新耶路撒冷”完胜羅馬(啟3:12, 21:2) 。
  • 合宜而正當,fitting and proper,也是經書熟語,強調一同紀念之必要。
  • 祝聖而歸聖,consecrate, hallow,《聖經》術語,詞根(qdsh)本義分別、隔開,轉指獻歸至聖(上帝)的物或人,稱“祝聖歸主”,如子民供奉祭品,立會幕、祭壇、大祭司等(出29:1, 33, 43-44, 30:30)
  • 那生還的和犧牲了的,living and dead,“勇士”的同位語。國土歸聖,“合眾為一” (e pluribus unum),是雙方“浴血”犧牲換來的。
  • 未竟的事業,the unfinished work,重點在生者:未竟,因為後人不忘。故聖潔之邦的“自由之新生”,不是一場內戰能擔保成功的;民主作為“政治宗教”要求每一代人的犧牲與“盡忠” (devotion)
  • 民有、民治、民享,of, by, for the people,借自廢奴主義者帕克牧師(Theodore Parker, 1810~1860):民主即直接自治,self-government,over all the people, for all the people , by all the people。此短語的源頭,學者考證,在“宗教改革之啟明星”威克利夫的英譯《聖經》序(1384):This Bible is for the government of the people, for the people andby the people (參《信與忘》,頁53)
  • 政權,government,對應上句“國家”。語出欽定本《以賽亞書》,希伯來文:misrah,本義君權、治權,轉指治權之行使、掌權者(賽9:6-7,羅13:1-4)舊譯政府,不確;由苦難和犧牲的獻祭中獲“新生”的,不是聯邦行政機關,是全國人民做主之權。
  • 永不消亡,shall not perish,經書熟語(出9:15,耶10:11,箴2:22,伯18:17),回應起頭的“接生”“孕育”。
二〇一六年勞動節於清華園,原載《東方早報·上海書評》2016.6.12
  CARL SANDBURG




  AND SO TO-DAY


  And so to-day--they lay him away--
  the boy nobody knows the name of--
  the buck private--the unknown soldier--
  the doughboy who dug under and died
  when they told him to--that's him.

  Down Pennsylvania Avenue to-day the riders go,
  men and boys riding horses, roses in their teeth,
  stems of roses, rose leaf stalks, rose dark leaves--
  the line of the green ends in a red rose flash.

  Skeleton men and boys riding skeleton horses,
  the rib bones shine, the rib bones curve,
  shine with savage, elegant curves--
  a jawbone runs with a long white slant,
  a skull dome runs with a long white arch,
  bone triangles click and rattle,
  elbows, ankles, white line slants--
  shining in the sun, past the White House,
  past the Treasury Building, Army and Navy Buildings,
  on to the mystic white Capitol Dome--
  so they go down Pennsylvania Avenue to-day,
  skeleton men and boys riding skeleton horses,
  stems of roses in their teeth,
  rose dark leaves at their white jaw slants--
  and a horse laugh question nickers and whinnies,
  moans with a whistle out of horse head teeth:
  why? who? where?

    ("The big fish--eat the little fish--
      the little fish--eat the shrimps--
      and the shrimps--eat mud,"--
      said a cadaverous man--with a black umbrella--
      spotted with white polka dots--with a missing
      ear--with a missing foot and arms--
      with a missing sheath of muscles
      singing to the silver sashes of the sun.)

  And so to-day--they lay him away--
  the boy nobody knows the name of--
  the buck private--the unknown soldier--
  the doughboy who dug under and died
  when they told him to--that's him.

  If he picked himself and said, "I am ready to die,"
  if he gave his name and said, "My country, take me,"
  then the baskets of roses to-day are for the Boy,
  the flowers, the songs, the steamboat whistles,
  the proclamations of the honorable orators,
  they are all for the Boy--that's him.

  If the government of the Republic picked him saying,
  "You are wanted, your country takes you"--
  if the Republic put a stethoscope to his heart
  and looked at his teeth and tested his eyes and said,
  "You are a citizen of the Republic and a sound
  animal in all parts and functions--the Republic takes you"--
  then to-day the baskets of flowers are all for the Republic,
  the roses, the songs, the steamboat whistles,
  the proclamations of the honorable orators--
  they are all for the Republic.

  And so to-day--they lay him away--
  and an understanding goes--his long sleep shall be
  under arms and arches near the Capitol Dome--
  there is an authorization--he shall have tomb companions--
  the martyred presidents of the Republic--
  the buck private--the unknown soldier--that's him.

  The man who was war commander of the armies of the Republic
  rides down Pennsylvania Avenue--
  The man who is peace commander of the armies of the Republic
  rides down Pennsylvania Avenue--
  for the sake of the Boy, for the sake of the Republic.

     (And the hoofs of the skeleton horses
      all drum soft on the asphalt footing--
      so soft is the drumming, so soft the roll call
      of the grinning sergeants calling the roll call--
      so soft is it all--a camera man murmurs, "Moonshine.")

  Look--who salutes the coffin--
  lays a wreath of remembrance
  on the box where a buck private
  sleeps a clean dry sleep at last--
  look--it is the highest ranking general
  of the officers of the armies of the Republic.

     (Among pigeon corners of the Congressional Library--they
      file documents quietly, casually, all in a day's work--
      this human document, the buck private nobody knows the
      name of--they file away in granite and steel--with music
      and roses, salutes, proclamations of the honorable
      orators.)

  Across the country, between two ocean shore lines,
  where cities cling to rail and water routes,
  there people and horses stop in their foot tracks,
  cars and wagons stop in their wheel tracks--
  faces at street crossings shine with a silence
  of eggs laid in a row on a pantry shelf--
  among the ways and paths of the flow of the Republic
  faces come to a standstill, sixty clockticks count--
  in the name of the Boy, in the name of the Republic.

     (A million faces a thousand miles from Pennsylvania Avenue
      stay frozen with a look, a clocktick, a moment--
      skeleton riders on skeleton horses--the nickering high horse
            laugh,
      the whinny and the howl up Pennsylvania Avenue:
      who? why? where?)

      (So people far from the asphalt footing of Pennsylvania
      Avenue look, wonder, mumble--the riding white-jaw
      phantoms ride hi-eeee, hi-eeee, hi-yi, hi-yi, hi-eeee--
      the proclamations of the honorable orators mix with the
      top-sergeants whistling the roll call.)

  If when the clockticks counted sixty,
  when the heartbeats of the Republic
  came to a stop for a minute,
  if the Boy had happened to sit up,
  happening to sit up as Lazarus sat up, in the story,
  then the first shivering language to drip off his mouth
  might have come as, "Thank God," or "Am I dreaming?"
  or "What the hell" or "When do we eat?"
  or "Kill 'em, kill 'em, the...."
  or "Was that ... a rat ... ran over my face?"
  or "For Christ's sake, gimme water, gimme water,"
  or "Blub blub, bloo bloo...."
  or any bubbles of shell shock gibberish
  from the gashes of No Man's Land.

  Maybe some buddy knows,
  some sister, mother, sweetheart,
  maybe some girl who sat with him once
  when a two-horn silver moon
  slid on the peak of a house-roof gable,
  and promises lived in the air of the night,
  when the air was filled with promises,
  when any little slip-shoe lovey
  could pick a promise out of the air.

      "Feed it to 'em,
      they lap it up,
      bull ... bull ... bull,"
  Said a movie news reel camera man,
  Said a Washington newspaper correspondent,
  Said a baggage handler lugging a trunk,
  Said a two-a-day vaudeville juggler,
  Said a hanky-pank selling jumping-jacks.
  "Hokum--they lap it up," said the bunch.

  And a tall scar-face ball player,
  Played out as a ball player,
  Made a speech of his own for the hero boy,
  Sent an earful of his own to the dead buck private:
       "It's all safe now, buddy,
       Safe when you say yes,
       Safe for the yes-men."

  He was a tall scar-face battler
  With his face in a newspaper
  Reading want ads, reading jokes,
  Reading love, murder, politics,
  Jumping from jokes back to the want ads,
  Reading the want ads first and last,
  The letters of the word JOB, "J-O-B,"
  Burnt like a shot of bootleg booze
  In the bones of his head--
  In the wish of his scar-face eyes.

  The honorable orators,
  Always the honorable orators,
  Buttoning the buttons on their prinz alberts,
  Pronouncing the syllables "sac-ri-fice,"
  Juggling those bitter salt-soaked syllables--
  Do they ever gag with hot ashes in their mouths?
  Do their tongues ever shrivel with a pain of fire
  Across those simple syllables "sac-ri-fice"?

  (There was one orator people far off saw.
  He had on a gunnysack shirt over his bones,
  And he lifted an elbow socket over his head,
  And he lifted a skinny signal finger.
  And he had nothing to say, nothing easy--
  He mentioned ten million men, mentioned them as having gone west,
        mentioned them as shoving up the daisies.
  We could write it all on a postage stamp, what he said.
  He said it and quit and faded away,
  A gunnysack shirt on his bones.)

      Stars of the night sky,
      did you see that phantom fadeout,
      did you see those phantom riders,
      skeleton riders on skeleton horses,
      stems of roses in their teeth,
      rose leaves red on white-jaw slants,
      grinning along on Pennsylvania Avenue,
      the top-sergeants calling roll calls--
      did their horses nicker a horse laugh?
      did the ghosts of the boney battalions
      move out and on, up the Potomac, over on the Ohio
      and out to the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Red River,
      and down to the Rio Grande, and on to the Yazoo,
      over to the Chattahoochee and up to the Rappahannock?
      did you see 'em, stars of the night sky?

      And so to-day--they lay him away--
      the boy nobody knows the name of--
      they lay him away in granite and steel--
      with music and roses--under a flag--
      under a sky of promises.




  CALIFORNIA CITY LANDSCAPE


  On a mountain-side the real estate agents
  Put up signs marking the city lots to be sold there.
  A man whose father and mother were Irish
  Ran a goat farm half-way down the mountain;
  He drove a covered wagon years ago,
  Understood how to handle a rifle,
  Shot grouse, buffalo, Indians, in a single year,
  And now was raising goats around a shanty.
  Down at the foot of the mountain
  Two Japanese families had flower farms.
  A man and woman were in rows of sweet peas
  Picking the pink and white flowers
  To put in baskets and take to the Los Angeles market.
  They were clean as what they handled
  There in the morning sun, the big people and the baby-faces.
  Across the road, high on another mountain,
  Stood a house saying, "I am it," a commanding house.
  There was the home of a motion picture director
  Famous for lavish whore-house interiors,
  Clothes ransacked from the latest designs for women
  In the combats of "male against female."
  The mountain, the scenery, the layout of the landscape,
  And the peace of the morning sun as it happened,
  The miles of houses pocketed in the valley beyond--
  It was all worth looking at, worth wondering about,
  How long it might last, how young it might be.




  UPSTREAM


  The strong men keep coming on.
  They go down shot, hanged, sick, broken.
  They live on, fighting, singing, lucky as plungers.

  The strong men ... they keep coming on.
  The strong mothers pulling them from a dark sea, a great prairie, a
        long mountain.

  Call hallelujah, call amen, call deep thanks.
  The strong men keep coming on.




  WINDFLOWER LEAF


  This flower is repeated
  out of old winds, out of
  old times.

  The wind repeats these, it
  must have these, over and
  over again.

  Oh, windflowers so fresh,
  Oh, beautiful leaves, here
  now again.

    The domes over
    fall to pieces.
    The stones under
    fall to pieces.
    Rain and ice
    wreck the works.
  The wind keeps, the windflowers
    keep, the leaves last,
  The wind young and strong lets
    these last longer than stones.

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